University of Basel

SIBA – A Visual Approach to Explore Everyday Life in Turkish and Yugoslav Cities, 1920s and 1930s


  1. Aero Klub

    Air Club [eng]

    Association of Belgrade airplane freaks and pilots, military and civil. More is following soon.

  2. ahmedija

    ahmediyya (from the male name 'Ahmed') [ara]

    ahmediye [tur]

    Turban; fine linen strap wrapped around the fes or a similar cap. Its colour points to social rank: A religious dignitary imam or 'hodža' wears a white ahmedija, a 'hadži' (Mecca pilgrim) wears a 'šarena ahmedija' with a yellow stripe pattern. See also čalma, fes.

    • From Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  3. Akıntıburnu

    Platform at the Bosphorus in the neighbourhood of Arnavutköy, Beşiktaş, Istanbul.

  4. Akaretler Sıraevleri

    The Akaretler Sıraevleri (Akaretler terrace) were built in 1875 in neoclassical style by the Armenian architect Sarkis Balyan, from the prominent Istanbul master builder family of the same name. The construction of the houses was commissioned by Sultan Abdülaziz, who intended the apartments for his officials working in nearby Dolmabahçe Palace. Among the subsequent inhabitants were the mother of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), Zübeyde, as well as his sister Makbule (Atadan) and his adopted child Abdürrahim (Tuncak), who lived there from 1911–1919.

    Located in Süleyman Seba Street, the buildings constituted the first collective housing project in the Ottoman Empire. After the proclamation of the Republic, the houses were placed under the administration of the Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü (Directorate General of Foundations), which allocated the buildings to various public and political institutions.

    • Ulusay Alpay, Bilge; Gökgür, Pelin (2013): 'Urban Design as a Method for the Reevaluation of Historical Environments: The Case Study of Beşiktaş Akaretler Row Houses.' In: ATINER's Conference Paper Series, No.: ARC2013-0592.
    • Sağdıç, Mimar Zafer (1999): 'Sıraev Kavramının İncelenmesi ve Osmanlı Mimarisi'nde Akaretler Sıraev Grubu'nun Yeri ve Önemi'. Master thesis, submitted at the Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü of İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi.
  5. Alifakovac

    Ali Fakihu [tur]

    Alifakovac is a mahalla located on the left side of the Miljacka river, near Babića bašča. It is named after Ali Fakih, a Sarajevo scholar (fakih) of islamic law, who is also listed as a witness in Isa Isaković's vakıfname of 1462. According to a different legend, the name goes back to Ali Ufak, a famous sheikh buried in the cemetery there.

  6. At Mejdan

    at meydan [tur]

    Horse market [eng]

    At Mejdan is a park located on the left bank of the Miljacka river, between the Latin bridge and Ćumurija bridge. In the decades after the founding of Sarajevo, the place was used as execution site and called Sijaset Mejdan. In the early seventeenth century, a hippodrome was built there, and it was renamed At Mejdan accordingly. Under Habsburg rule, the hippodrome was relocated to Butmir, and a representative park with a music pavilion built by Josip Pospišil in 1911. In the 19th and 20th century, the square saw several changes of name (e.g. Filipović Square in 1878, Franjo Josip I Square in 1910, King Dušan Square in 1914), until it was renamed At Mejdan in 1993.

  7. Ashkenaz synagogue

    Aškenaska sinagoga [bks]

    Following soon.

  8. Babića bašča

    Babić's Garden [eng]

  9. bayram

    bajram [bks]

    < bayram [per]

    religious holiday, also generally holiday [eng]

    The two highest Islamic holidays are Ramadan and Kurban bayramı at the beginning and the end of the fasting month Ramadan. In Turkey, 'bayram' is also used for republican holidays, namely Cumhuriyet bayramı, Çocuk bayramı and Gençlik ve spor bayramı.

  10. banovina

    Regional unit ruled by a 'ban', a noble title used in Southeastern and Central Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. King Aleksandar Karađorđević introduced a new division of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into nine 'banovine', when he established his personal dictatorship on 6 January 1929. The division into 'banovine' did not respect historically grown regions.

    • Đokić, Dejan (2003): (Dis)integrating Yugoslavia: King Alexander and Interwar Yugoslavism. In: Dejan Đokić (ed.): Yugoslavism. Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918–1992. London: Hurst. 136–156.
  11. Baščaršija

    baš + čaršija [bks]

    < baş, < çarşı [tur]

    < čārsū [per]

    main trade quarter (combination of baš = head, main, and čaršija = trade quarter) [eng]

    Main market quarter of Sarajevo, as a 'pars pro toto' name also meaning the Old City of Sarajevo. In a narrow sense, the square stretching from Čekrekči Muslihudin Mosque to Baščaršija Mosque, dominated by the Sebilj fountain.

  12. Baščaršija Mosque

    Baščaršijska džamija [bks]

    Main mosque of the Sarajevo trade quarter, situated at the southeastern end of Baščaršija. Its official name is Havadže Durak hadži-Ahmed Mosque, after its founder Havadže Durak (died around 1540).

  13. Beg

    < bey [tur]

    The Arabic spelling is 'bek', hence the Bosnian and Serbian spelling 'beg'. Ottoman title of nobility and/or high military or administrative rank. Commonly used to distinguish a respected man. In Bosnia, the title often survives in family names, for example Begović, Izetbegović, Avidbegović, Smailbegović.

    • From Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  14. bensilah

    belsilahı [tur]

    weapon belt [eng]

    Leather belt with small bags for carrying money and smoking utensils. From Turkish: bel (waist, belt) and Arabic: silah (weapon)

  15. Bentbaša

    Area to the east of Sarajevo Old City, along the canyon through which the Miljacka River enters the city.

  16. Beogradska opština

    Belgrade Municipality building [eng]

    Following soon.

  17. Beyoğlu

    Pera [gre]

    Istanbul area opposite the Golden Horn Haliç. Traditional quarter of the Levantine foreigners since Byzantine times, dominated by the Galata Tower. Its main road, the Grand Rue de Péra, is called İstiklal Caddesı from the Republican period onwards. The area assembles elegant shops with international choices, the adjoining quarters offer plenty of entertainment opportunities. As such, Beyoğlu became a synonyme for a modern, liberal, western, or decadent lifestyle.

  18. Beyazıt meydanı

    Beyazit Square [eng]

    Following soon.

  19. Bistrički potok

    Bistrik Creek [eng]

    Also called Bistrica. Running through the Sarajevo mahalla of Bistrik and flowing into the Miljacka River from the left, near the Latin Bridge.

  20. Bistrik

    Old Sarajevo mahalla to the left of the Miljacka River, where Sarajevo city founder Gazi Isa-beg Isaković's son built Mehmed-beg Isabegović Mosque with an adjoining school (medresa). Location of the Sarajevo Konak, the Sarajevska pivara and the Sarajevo railway station of the Sarajevo-Višegrad line.

  21. Bijela tabija

    White Fortress [eng]

    Old fortress overlooking the old Sarajevo, situated above Bentbaša and the eastern entrance to the city. Part of the Vratnik fortifications.

  22. Bubikopf

    crop [eng]

    Short hairstyle fashionable in Europe and America in the 1920s. It was worn by both sexes, but usually only called Bubikopf if sported by a woman. The haircut was a symbol of female emancipation and of a modern, fashionable and liberal attitude.

  23. Butmir

    Following soon.

  24. Brusa bezistan

    Following soon.

  25. čakšire

    çakşır [tur]

    Oriental male trousers with a deep crotch (often as low as the knee) and narrow, buttoned ankles. Made from heavy woolen fabric, such as loden (sukna) or čoja.

  26. čalma

    çalma [tur]

    Turban; fine linen strap wrapped around the fes or a similar cap. Its colour points to social rank: A religious dignitary imam or 'hodža' wears it in white, a 'hadži' (Mecca pilgrim) with a yellow stripe pattern. See also ahmedija, fes.

    • Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  27. Careva ćuprija

    Following soon.

  28. Carska džada

    Istanbul road [eng]

    Alternately: Carigradski drum, Stambolski drum, Stambolska džada.

    Road connecting Sarajevo to Istanbul, via Vratnik, Višegrad and Novi Pazar.

  29. çarşav

    čaršaf [bks]

    < čāderšeb, čāršeb [per]

    bedsheet; table cloth; shawl women use to cover the head and upper body when leaving the house: [eng]

  30. Čekrekči Muslihudin Mosque

    Čekrekčija džamija [bks]

    Following soon.

  31. čikma

    çıkmaz [tur]

    dead end [eng]

  32. ćilim

    kelim, kilim [tur]

    kilīm [per]

    See kelim

  33. Çocuk bayramı

    Children's Holiday [eng]

    Following soon.

  34. čoja

    čoha, čoja [bks]

    < çuha, çuka [tur]

    < čūḫa [per]

    loden, soft wool cloth [eng]

  35. Cumhuriyet bayramı

    Day of the Republic [eng]

    Cumhuriyet bayramı (Day of the Republic) is a national holiday in Turkey. It commemorates the proclamation of the Turkish Republic on 29 October 1923. Introduced by a bill passed in April 1925, it was celebrated for the first time in October of the same year. Diplomatic receptions, speeches, public lectures, balls, concerts, and – celebrated by the public and the press – military, student and corporate parades were organized both in Ankara and Istanbul. Next to other important commemoration days such as Gençlik ve spor bayramı (Day of Youth and Sport) and Çocuk bayramı (Day of the Children), Cumhuriyet bayramı was soon established as the most important arena for the symbolic articulation of the nation.

    See also bayram.

    • Ulu, Cafer (2014): 'Atatürk Döneminde Cumhuriyet Bayramı Kutlamaları: İstanbul ve Ankara Örneği (1925–1938).' In: Türk Dünyası Araştırması, Vol. 208, 249–276.
    • Öztürkmen, Arzu (2001): 'Celebrating National Holidays in Turkey: History and Memory.' In: New Perspectives on Turkey, Vol. 25, 47–75.
  36. CHP

    Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi [tur]

    Republican People Party [eng]

  37. Cvetni trg

    Cvetni trg (Flower Square) is an triangulary shaped neighborhood in the Vračar quarter, initially located between the Kragujevac, Njegoš and Studenica streets, today limited to a few adjoning blocks marked-off by Kralj Milan and Svetozar Marković streets. Named after a market place, 'Cvetna pijaca' (Flower market), which was built at the end of 19th century, Cvetni trg features various modern shopping facilities surrounded by cafes and restaurants since its very beginning.

  38. Darülfünun

    The building of Istanbul University at Beyazıt Square. More following soon.

  39. davul

    bubanj [bks]

    large drum [eng]

    See zurna

  40. đevrek

    gevrek [tur]

    Salty pastry in the shape of a ring. Also called simit.

  41. dušeme


    Part of the zar or ferece, large shawl used to cover the head and upper body. See also çarşaf.

  42. džamadan

    camadan [tur]

    ǧamedān [per]

    High-necked male vest worn over the shirt, sometimes combined with the 'anterija' (richly decorated coat with 'gajtan' embroideries, piece of the festive garb).

    • Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  43. dženaza

    < cenaze [tur]

    < ğenāza [ara]

    Islamic funeral procession, funeral [eng]

    adhan [ara]

  44. feredža

    ferece [tur]

    The zar or 'feredža' (hijab) was an obligatory part of female attire outside the home in the Ottoman Empire. In Turkey it was abolished with the dress law of 1928. In Bosina, Muslim women continued to wear it until well after World War II. It consisted of a loose cloak, with long loose arm sleeves, and a large neck decolletage. It was worn with a 'jaka' and three light head scarfs: The 'jaka' was fixed around the forehead. The 'čember' was fixed over head and forehead, the 'jačmak' covered the face beneath the eyes and mouth, and the 'dušeme' covered the head on top and fell down to the mid-back. Rich, highbred women added a black 'peča' around the eye opening, which was decorated with gold and/or silver embroidery. At the end of the 1930s, urban Bosniak women started to leave the face uncovered, still continuing to wear the 'zar', and covering the face according to situation. In everyday situations, the terms 'zar' and 'feredža' were/are used synonymously, but Abdulah Škaljić marks a difference between the 'zar' made from light, possibly very expensive materials such as 'damask' or printed 'basma', and the 'feredža', made from dark woolen 'čoja'.

    • Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  45. fes

    Traditional male headcover, made from usually red felt.

  46. fijaker

    Horse-driven open carriage. Used as taxi.

  47. Galata Tower

    Following soon.

  48. Gazi Husrev Beg Mosque

    Gazi Husrev begova džamija [bks]

    More following soon.

  49. Genclik ve spor bayramı

    Youth and Sports Day [eng]

    Following soon.

  50. imam

    imam [tur]

    imam [bks]

    imam, Muslim priest [eng]

  51. Isa beg Isaković

    Regarded as the founder of Sarajevo. More following soon.

  52. İstiklal Caddesi

    Independence Road: [eng]

    Formerly Grand Rue de Péra. More following soon.

  53. jelek

    yelek [tur]

    Short open vest worn by men and women alike, usually decorated with 'gajtan' embroideries.

  54. kahvehane

    kahva [bks]

    coffee house [eng]

    See kafana. More following soon.

  55. Kalemegdan

    kale meydan [tur]

    fort square [eng]

    More following soon.

  56. kalpak

    kalpak [tur]

    Military fur cap.

  57. kafana

    coffee house [eng]

    See kahvehane. More following soon.

  58. Karađorđević

    The Royal Yugoslav Dinasty.

    Aleksandar (1888–1934). King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1921 to 1929 and King of Yugoslavia 1929 to 1934, also known as Aleksandar the Unifier (Aleksandar Ujedinitelj). Son of King Petar I. Karađorđević and Queen Zorka (né Ljubica Petrović-Njegoš). Born on 16 December 1888 in Cetinje (Montenegro), crown prince of Serbia in 1909, after his elder brother's renouncement to the throne. Introduced a personal dictatorship on 6 January 1929. Assassinated in Marseille on 9 October 1934.

    Marija (1900–1961). Born Maria Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Queen of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1922-1929), Queen of Yugoslavia (1929-1934). Daughter of King Ferdinand I. of Romania, granddaughter of grand princess Marija Aleksandrovna, sister to Russian Tsar Alexander III., and great-granddaughter of British Queen Victoria. Princess Marija was married to King Aleksandar I Karadjordjević on 08 June 1922 in the Belgrade Cathedral. The couple had three sons: Petar, the crown prince, Tomislav and Andrej.

    After the assassination of King Aleksander I in Marseille on 9 October 1934, she supervised the education of crown prince Petar, who became the King of Yugoslavia on 28 March 1941. On this occasion, she was given the title Queen Mother of Yugoslavia and went to live in England with her two younger sons, soon followed by the king, after the defeat of the Yugoslav Army against the German aggression on April 1941. After the Second World War and the establishment of communist rule, the entire royal family of Yugoslavia was banned from the country, with their citizenships rescinded and all property seized in 1947.

    Queen Marija spoke several languages and drove a car herself. She took an interest in arts, especially in painting and sculpting, and was known for her charitable work.

    She died in 1961 in London and was buried at the Frogmore Royal Burial Ground in Windsor. In 2012, her remains were transferred to Serbia and reburied in the Karađorđević family tomb in Oplenac, in the frame of a state funeral on 26 May 2013. Her family filed a request to rehabilitate her and return her citizenship and property in the same year, which was granted in spring 2014. In contemporary Serbia, she is remembered as an exemplary ruler's wife, and as a model of devotion and motherly care.

    Online sources:

  59. kelim

    ćilim [bks]

    Woolen rug. More following soon.

  60. Knez Mihailo Street

    Knez Mihailova ulica / ulica Kneza Mihaila [bks]

    Named after Mihailo Obrenović (1823-1868), Knez Mihailova Street is the main commercial street and serves as the 'korzo' or boulevard for walking and meeting in Belgrade since its establishment after the take-over of the city from Ottoman rule in 1867.

  61. konak

    konak [tur]

    House of a well-to-do person or seat of an Ottoman official. More following soon.

  62. Kurban

    kurban bayramı [tur]

    More following soon. See also bayram.

  63. libade

    libade [tur]

    lubbāda [ara]

    Female vest with wide long sleeves, made from velvet or silk, decorated with 'gajtan' embroideries. More following soon.

  64. mahalla

    mahala, mala [bks]

    town or village quarter [eng]

    More following soon.

  65. Mahmutpaşa çarşısı

    Following soon.

  66. mahrama

    miqrama [ara]

    mahrama, marama [bks]

    headscarf [eng]

  67. nanule

    nalın [tur]

    na-leyn [ara]

    Outdoor clogs, sometimes richly decorated.

  68. nargila

    nargile [tur]

    nārgilē [per]

    Water pipe. More following soon.

  69. national garb

    Following soon.

  70. Nušić

    Nušić, Branislav (1864–1938). More following soon.

  71. opanci

    Peasant shoes made from leather, often with a woven piece on top. The Serbian variant has a peak.

  72. patriarch

    Head of the orthodox church.

  73. Pobednik

    Following soon.

  74. Pozorišni trg

    Theatre Square [eng]

    Belgrade. Today Trg Republike (Republic's Square). More following soon.

  75. Ramadan

    Ramazanski bajram [eng]

    See bayram

  76. Saborna crkva

    cathedral [eng]

    Belgrade. Saborna crkva (The Cathedral Church of St. Michael the Archangel) is a Serbian Orthodox Christain church, located in the old part of the city, near the Belgrade fortress. The Cathedral – dedicated to the patron saint Archangel Michael, was built between 1837 and 1840, on the spot where the church from 1728 used to stand.

    The building was designed by Friedrich Kwerfeld, who combined classicistic with baroque elements, particulary visible in the design of belfry. The rich interior decoration contains paintings, woodcut decorations, icons in iconostasis and wall compositions, as well as church furniture and pulpits. Golden products from the 18th and 19th century, priest’s garments, old printed books and other artifacts of cultural historical importance are kept in the church treasury.

    The Cathedral has been the most prominent building of the ecclesiastical topography of Belgrade. It had an important role in many historic events. In the churchyard, in front of the main entrance, there are tombs of Dositej Obradović and Vuk Karadžić, while tombs of Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović and of some high clergy are along the walls of the nave.

    • Sretenović, Irena (2008): Saborna Crkva. Beograd, Zavod za zaštitu kulture grada Beograda.
    • Online source: (accessed 22 May 2016).
  77. simit

    See đevrek

  78. slava

    Slava or Krsna Slava is an annual Serbian Orthodox feast, primarily a family-kin celebration of a prominent social function. The family celebrate the Slava on the saint’s feast day and adopted the name-day of a saint as it’s family Krsna Slava (literally: the celebration of becoming Christian). The saint of the family’s Slava is considered to be the patron saint of that family and is inherited along patrilineal lines. The main function of it is to preserve the sense of unity among patrilineal kin-groups. A particular saint is usually represented at the feast by his or her icon, which is generally placed in a prominent place in one family’s home. The icon serves as the focal point for the rest of the elements of the Feast such as incense that is burned around it, holy bread (slavski kolač) decorated with religious and other symbols, a lighted decorated candle (slavska sveća), a glass of red-wine and a bowl of wheat (koljivo).

    The main ritual activity in a ceremonial feast is raising and breaking of the holy bread, including pouring wine. The bread first has to be turned three times, then cut into sign of the cross and poured over with wine, the patriarch of the family and his successor (or the priest and the patriarch) kiss the bread and each other. The boiled wheat – koljivo symbolizes the way of life. In the middle of it, a candle is lit to burn throughout the ritual of pouring wine and breaking the bread. The ritual is carried out by the household head, patriarch.

    In the XX century Serbia, every village celebrated its own village feast in honour of the patron saint of the local church (sabor, zavetina, seoska slava). The Krsna slava patron saint celebration is still a dominant feature and symbol of the Serb’s religious life at home, in the church communities and organizations/associations.

    • Popadić, Dimitrije (2000): The Role of the Icon in the Serbian Krsna Slava Celebration - Ecclesiastical and Missiological Challenges, Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe: Vol. 20/4, Article 2.
    • Hristov, Petko (2014): Ideological dimensions of the „Balkans Family Pattern“ in the first half of the 20th century. History of the Family (Routledge), Vol. 19/2, 218-234.
  79. sletište

    Stadium of the Svesokolski slet. More following soon.

  80. Soko

    Following soon.

  81. somun

    flat bread [eng]

    Bread speciality in the Balkans and Anatolia used to prepare kebap/ćevap sandwiches.

  82. Spomenik neznanom junaku

    Memorial to the unknown heroes [eng]

    Belgrade, Avala.

  83. Svesokolski slet

    Following soon.

  84. Stari Dvor

    Following soon.

  85. Šeher Čehajina ćuprija

    Following soon.

  86. tabut

    tabut [tur]

    tābūt [ara]

    Muslim style coffin, without cover. Male bodies are transported to the graveyard in a tabut, but not buried in it, whereas women are.

    • Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  87. Taksim

    Following soon.

  88. Taksim stadı

    Taskim Stadium [eng]

    Following soon.

  89. Tašlihan

    Following soon.

  90. Tayyare Apartmanları

    Tayyare Apartments [eng]

    Tayyare Apartmanları, built under the survey of the architect Ahmed Kemaleddin, are located in the Lâleli neighbourhood of Fatih disctrict. Plannings for the construction of the buildings started in 1918, when many people lost their homes in a devastating fire in Fatih. The construction was completed in 1922 under the common name 'Harikzedegân Apartmanları' (apartments for those who lost their homes in the fire) and transferred to the Türk Tayyare Cemiyeti (Türkish Aviation Society) to rent out the overall 124 apartments. Thereafter renamed to Tayyare Apartmanları, they were among the first buildings that were constructed with a reinforced concrete skeleton in Turkey and the first rented apartments in Fatih. They also stand out due to their high technical standard and their interior fitting, which consists of an atrium with a staircase leading up to galleries where the apartments are located.

    • Kreiser, Klaus (2001): Istanbul. Ein historisch-literarischer Stadtführer. Munich: Beck.
    • Som, Deniz: Laleli'den Tayyare geçti. Arkitera Haber Bülteni, 8 March 2004. (accessed 25 April 2016).
    • O. C.: 'Lâleli Apartmanları Başlıbaşına Bir Mahalledir, Insanın Hiç Canı Sıkılmaz!' Yeni Gün, 28 July 1931, 1.
  91. Terazije

    Name in the interwar period: Prestolonaslednikov trg (Crown prince's Square).

    Terazije is a central square in Belgrade and an extension of the Knez Mihailo Street. The street dates from the first half of the 19th century, when it was not considered the central area of the city; in fact it was out of the city limits.

    The area of today’s Terazije Square was named after so called tower ‚water scales’ (turc. ‚su terazisi’ ), built by the Turks along the brick-lined waterworks, to extract water by pipes so as to provide a higher elevation and improve the flow. The biggest of those towers was built on the spot of modern-day Terazije Fountain.

    Terazije Square began to form during the reign of Miloš Obrenović. In order to expand Belgrade away from trenches of the Stambol gate, he ordered Serbian craftsmen, especially blacksmiths and coppersmiths, to move their houses and shops on the place of the present square.

    Terazije underwent significant changes during 1911-1912, when it was completely rebuilt. Mostly one-storey, Oriental houses were replaced with buildings with contemporary architectural influences. In the middle of the square were set flower areas, surrounded by a low iron fence. Most remarkable buildings, among them hotels, inns, and merchant shops, were erected at the end of the 19th and during the early 20th century. Some of these are: the Hotel Moskva (Moscow Hotel), which was built in 1906; today’s ‚Kasina’ hotel, built on the same spot as the old one in 1922; the inn and cinema ‚Takovo’; the new ‚Balkan’ hotel, built in 1936; ‚Albanija’ palace, which replaced the small ‚Albanija’ inn in 1938 and others.

    In the late 19th and first half of the 20th century, Terazije became the center of social life of Belgrade.

  92. Topčider

    top (cannon), topçu (artillery) [tur]

    dare (valley) [per]

    Topčider is a Belgrade neighbourhood and includes a large forest.

    • Ćirić, Ksenija (2008): Topčider. Beograd, Zavod za zaštitu spomenika i kulture grada Beograda, 1-9.
    • Ćorović, Dragana (2010): Three Parks in Nineteenth-Century Belgrade. In: Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies, Vol. 24, No.1-2, 75-100.
  93. Tophane Ford Factory

    Tophane Ford fabrikası [tur]

    The Ford plant in Tophane was established in 1929 in the Tophane neighbourhood of Beyoğlu. The site, by that time in use as a warehouse area, was re-assigned to Ford Motor Company Export Inc. following an agreement between the Turkish state and the Ford Company. The agreement ensured exemption from customs and taxes for the next 25 years and in turn demanded the assignment of 60, later 70 percent of the jobs to Turkish workers as well as the involvment of the local port sector. The plant was designated to supply the markets in the Near East and the Soviet Union. Its establishment meant a significant increase in the Turkish Republic's industrial capacities and was – rather unsurprisingly – organised along the main principles of 'Fordism' as the dominant mode of industrial production in that time. But however typical and ambitious in its design, the production has never reached full capacity and was stopped as soon as 1934 due to the global economic breakdown and the fundamental changes in the political framework after 1929.

    Newspaper article:

    • Odman, Aslı (2001): Modern Times at the Galata Docks: Ford's Automobile Assembly Plant in Tophane 1925–1944. In: Aktaş, Ruşen; Sezgin, Ahmet (eds.): Ex:change, Istanbul – Marseille: Industrial Architectural Heritage, Developing Awareness and Visibility. Istanbul: ÇEKÜL Vakfı, 103-119.
    • 'Istanbul'da Tophane fabrikasında Ford otomobil ve kamyonları nasıl imal ediliyor?' Cumhuriyet, 3 August 1930.
  94. Velika pijaca

    Big Marketplace [eng]

    Name in the interwar period: Kraljev trg (King's Square). Name since 1945: Studentski trg (Students' Square).

  95. Vijećnica

    Following soon.

  96. Vratnik

    Old mahalla in the east of Sarajevo. Includes significant fortifications from the 18th century, built after the raid by Prince Eugene of Savoy in 1697. The fortifications include Višegrad kapija, Bijela tabija and Žuta tabija.

  97. Vrbica

    Following soon.

  98. Yeni cami

    Following soon.

  99. zar

    zar [tur]

    izār [ara]

    veil [eng]

    The zar or 'feredža' (hijab) was an obligatory part of female attire outside the home in the Ottoman Empire. In Turkey it was abolished with the dress law of 1928. In Bosina, Muslim women continued to wear it until well after World War II. It consisted of a loose cloak, with long loose arm sleeves, and a large neck decolletage. It was worn with a 'jaka' and three light head scarfs: The 'jaka' was fixed around the forehead. The 'čember' was fixed over head and forehead, the 'jačmak' covered the face beneath the eyes and mouth, and the 'dušeme' covered the head on top and fell down to the mid-back. Rich, highbred women added a black 'peča' around the eye opening, which was decorated with gold and/or silver embroidery. At the end of the 1930s, urban Bosniak women started to leave the face uncovered, still continuing to wear the 'zar', and covering the face according to situation. In everyday situations, the terms 'zar' and 'feredža' were/are used synonymously, but Abdulah Škaljić marks a difference between the 'zar' made from light, possibly very expensive materials such as 'damask' or printed 'basma', and the 'feredža', made from dark woolen 'čoja'.

    • Škaljić, Abdulah (1989): Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
  100. zurna

    also zurla [bks]

    zurna [tur]

    < sūrnā, sūrnāy (composed of: sūr: festivity, wedding, and nā, nay: pipe) [per]

    Wind instrument: conical oboe. It is usually played along with the davul on festive occasions (davul-zurna), throughout the territories of the former Ottoman Empire, and used to accompany 'karagöz' (shadow play) performances. The musicians are often Roma: A theory claims the instruments were introduced to the region by Roma musicians from India, who accompanied the Seljuqs on their campaigns to Anatolia. The zurna is also used in military mehter music.

    • Picken, Laurence (1975): Folk Musical Instruments of Turkey. Oxford University Press.
  101. Žuta tabija

    Yellow fortress [eng]

    Fortress belonging to the Vratnik fortifications in the east of Sarajevo.