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libri ordinarii of the Salzburg metropolitan province



The Liber ordinarius of the medieval diocese of Passau

The medieval "Danube" Diocese of Passau included the south-eastern part of the Duchy of Bavaria and the majority of the Habsburg-ruled Archduchy of Austria (with the exception of the south-western area around Wiener Neustadt, which formed part of the Archdiocese of Salzburg). After the Hofbistum or "court diocese" of Vienna was established in 1469/80, the Diocese of Passau was gradually ousted from its Austrian regions, a development culminating in the establishment of the dioceses of Linz and St. Pölten by Emperor Joseph III in 1783/85. For many centuries, the Diocese of Passau played a leading role in Austria's cultural-historical development both above and below the River Enns.

Incipit ordo sive breviarium de ecclesiasticis observationibus quid legendum sit vel cantandum per circulum anni secundum Pataviensem ecclesiam. This preamble of "church customs" refers to Passau's church as the origin of the ordo's tradition. The Liber ordinarius of Passau (LOP) does indeed contain the liturgy celebrated by Passau's cathedral canons at the time the Liber ordinarius was compiled. However, the history of the LOP's dissemination shows clearly that the term "ecclesia Pataviensis" is meant to include not just the cathedral, but all churches in the diocese.

For our edition, we were able to locate eight copies of the LOP. The oldest was produced between 1227 and 1240, the most recent in the first half of the 15th century. As the differences between the copies are only marginal, we decided to base our critical edition of the texts upon only three and five texts respectively. The additional expense and time required to code the other largely identical sources would have been disproportionate to the insights gained. The following manuscripts were coded in their entirety: SP1: A-SPL 83/3 (Spital am Pyhrn, c. 1233), SVE: A-Wn Cod. 1874 (parish church of St. Veit, Krems?, c. 1364) and KNB: A-KN 1194 (parish church of St. Martin, Klosterneuburg, second quarter of the 14th century). Important supplementary information on processional routes and notable actions was taken from the following manuscripts: WIE: A-Wn Cod. 4712 (St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, late 14th century) and SAL: A-Wn Cod. Ser.n. 39563 (parish of the monastery of St. Salvator, first quarter of the 15th century). Further uncoded sources: D-Mbs Clm 2725 (parish of the Cistercian monastery of Aldersbach, second quarter of the 14th century), A-KN CCl 965 (parish of Klosterneuburg monastery, c. 1380), A-SPA Cod. 51/3 (collegiate monastery Spital am Pyhrn, 1423), A-ME Cod. 1934 and Cod. 1114 (parishes of Melk monastery, 1422 and first half of the 15th century respectively).

As far as we can tell, the rulebook's compilation was not inspired by any concrete occasion, even though efforts to reform the diocese's clergy are evident under Bishop Gebhard (1222-32). Gebhard ordered strict visitations of his diocese's parishes and monasteries to be carried out from 1229 onwards at the behest of Pope Gregory IX. These rigorous proceedings were one of reasons for his deposition in 1232. His successor Bishop Rüdiger von Bergheim (1233-1250) came from a Salzburg ministerial dynasty and became a canon of Salzburg Cathedral in 1198. From 1208 to 1222, he was the parish priest in Salzburghofen and the infirmarian and provost of the Augustinian monastery of Zell am See. In 1215 he became a canon of Passau Cathedral, and from 1216 to 1233 he was bishop of Salzburg's newly founded proprietary diocese of Chiemsee. The Liber ordinarius Salisburgensis (LOS) was compiled in 1198 at the latest, precisely the year in which Rüdiger was appointed a canon of Salzburg Cathedral. The scribe of the LOS immortalised himself in a poem: ... Scribam presbiterum placato Deo Rudigerum ... There is strong reason to assume that both Rüdigers were one and the same person.

by Robert Klugseder

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